Common Errors Found in the English>Spanish Certification Exam

Reblogged from The ATA Chronicle, with permission

ATA certification continues to be a sought-after credential. As a way to prepare for this demanding exam, ATA has been offering practice tests for many years, which are real exam passages that have been “retired.” In addition to the practice test, ATA has been offering exam preparation workshops taught by ATA exam graders to help candidates better understand how to prepare for the exam. In the past three years, ATA has offered regional workshops in Boston, Alexandria, Houston, and Mexico City. These workshops are also offered at ATA’s Annual Conference, including this year in Palm Springs.

The three-hour workshop for Spanish<>English includes an analysis of the different error categories and a practice test that registered participants are invited to complete and submit prior to the workshop. The graded practice tests are returned during the workshop and used as the basis for discussion of the passage. Here are some of the most common errors made by candidates in the English>Spanish combination.

Mimicking English Syntax: Many candidates mimic the English syntax without stopping to consider that Spanish sentences often have to be organized differently. English is a more concise language than Spanish, and sometimes it’s necessary to change word order in a translation, or to provide a verb or an article that is not present in English. Common errors include the absence of definite and indefinite articles, the mimicking of the passive voice, and the use of prepositions that don’t reflect Spanish usage.

False Friends: These are English words that resemble Spanish words in their spelling, but have a different, sometimes opposite, meaning. As their name indicates, these words are very untrustworthy. Many candidates tend to choose the word that looks like the English for their translation, and, in so doing, make a transfer error. The more an English word resembles a Spanish one, the more necessary it is to verify that the meaning is the one that we need in the target language. Always confirm this using a monolingual dictionary.

Incorrect Use of Present Continuous Tense and Gerund/Present Participle: This is one aspect of grammar that’s very different in English and Spanish. Most of the time, in Spanish we cannot imitate the use of the present continuous tense or gerund/present participle. In fact, this is an aspect of Spanish grammar that requires study and practice. Just because you see a verb ending in –ing in English doesn’t mean you can replicate it in Spanish. Candidates lose a lot of points because they don’t understand the correct use of the present continuous tense and gerund/present participle in Spanish.

Mechanical Errors: These are what we call “controllable” errors. Mechanical errors are those evident to a Spanish reader without having to compare the text to the English original. Such errors include punctuation, capitalization, spelling, diacritical marks, grammar, and syntax. I say they are “controllable” because ATA’s certification exam is an open-book exam. It is therefore possible, and encouraged, for candidates to consult dictionaries, grammar books, and style manuals during the exam. As graders, we’ve found a number of candidates who fail due to mechanical errors. In other words, the candidate transfers the meaning well from English into Spanish, but makes too many mechanical errors.

Practice Makes Perfect

If you’re planning to take the certification exam in the English>Spanish combination, a practice test is the place to start. Brush up on your Spanish grammar and consult some style manuals to guide you in avoiding mechanical errors. And if you’re able, attend one of the regional workshops that are being offered a few times a year in different parts of the country and at ATA’s Annual Conference in the fall.


Mercedes De la Rosa-Sherman, CT has been a professional translator for over 30 years. An ATA-certified English>Spanish translator and a member of ATA’s Certification Committee, she has been a grader for ATA’s English>Spanish certification exam for over 10 years. She is also a state and federally certified court interpreter. She has a master’s degree in medical translation. Contact: delarosasherman@gmail.com.

Freelance Translator Survey 2020

“Interesting & fun to complete”, “Most comprehensive and interesting survey so far”, “Loved it!”, “Very thorough and thought-provoking” are just a few of the comments left by people who completed this survey for translators https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk/r/freelance-translator-survey-2020, a survey that took two months to put together, a survey designed by translators for translators.

The idea started to take shape a couple of months ago, after seeing several discussions in various translation groups I am a member of. There are a number of studies/surveys carried out in our field, some specifically aimed at members of certain associations, others focused on specific areas (e.g.CAT tools) or geographic location, but I wanted to do something a bit more comprehensive, open to freelance translators from anywhere around the world and covering as many aspects of our profession as possible.

Why did it take so long? Well, it involved several stages: after the initial brainstorming and research (to make sure it’s different from other surveys), I consulted a number of colleagues to see what sort of data translators really want to know and tried to include as many of those as possible. Sadly, that was impossible, as it would have made the survey twice as long. However, I am planning to look at some of these areas in more detail later, with additional surveys. To ensure the questions are not biased or leading, we also got a researcher on board to help with the flow and design. The initial draft went through several rounds of amends after being tested by a number of colleagues (who were generous and donated their time to help with this and to whom I am really grateful). The version you can now see live is version 11 🙂

Why should you consider filling this in? There are several reasons:

  • The findings will be published on https://inboxtranslation.com/resources/research/, therefore available to anyone interested
  • You are contributing to important and valuable research that will help you reflect on the way you are working as a translator
  • For each complete response, we will donate £1 (up to £250) to a charity of your choice
  • If you always wanted to know more about your fellow translators, you can suggest questions/topics we will consider for future surveys
  • The more people take part, and the more varied their background, location and experience, the more reliable the data obtained is, so please feel free to share the survey with fellow freelance translators

I, for one, am really excited to see the results! So please take the survey and help me help YOU!

Author bio

In her 15 years as a translation professional, Alina Cincan has been wearing many hats: Chartered Linguist (Language Specialist), translator, project manager, ECD (Expert Coffee Drinker), international conference speaker and author. Her #1 passion? Languages! She speaks six languages with various degrees of fluency. Some of her articles were published in translation journals and magazines, such as Traduire in France, MDÜ Magazine in Germany, La Linterna del Traductor in Spain, the ITI Bulletin in the UK and De Taalkundige/Le Linguiste In Belgium. More about her experience and work can be read here.

Free Training: Getting Started as a Freelance Translator

A four-week online course for beginning translators in any language combination, who want to launch and run a successful freelance business. Also for “experienced beginners” whose primary goal is to find more work.

Because a lot of people have a lot of time on their hands right now, I’m offering a free session of Getting Started as a Freelance Translator. We’ll have two live sessions per week (recordings provided if you can’t attend live) and a Slack group for discussion and questions. Participants in this session will not receive individual feedback on assignments, (you’ll still receive the assignments, but not individual feedback), but hey, it’s free! If you’ve been thinking of launching a freelance translation business, or if you’re a beginning translator looking for more or better work, come join us! Everyone welcome: all language combinations, students, anyone at all.

Instructor: Corinne McKay, CT. An ATA-certified French to English translator and Colorado-certified French court interpreter, Corinne has 16+ years of experience as a full-time freelancer and has taught the Getting Started as a Freelance Translator course since 2006. Corinne holds a Master’s degree in French Literature from Boston College, and specializes in international development, corporate communications, and non-fiction book translation. Her book How to Succeed as a Freelance Translator has sold over 12,000 copies and has become–now in its third edition–a go-to reference for the translation and interpreting professions.

Next session: March 30-April 30, 2020.

Live sessions: Video lectures at 12:30 PM New York time on Mondays (March 30, April 6, April 13, April 20), question and answer sessions on at 12:30 PM on Fridays (April 3, 10, 17, and 24). Recordings provided if you can’t attend live.

Description:This course was exactly what I needed – it offered a structured, bite-sized and realistic approach to topics every potential full-time freelancer needs to consider. Corinne’s honest and unbiased feedback helped me to focus on my goals and plan the next steps in my freelance career .”

“I was surprised and delighted at how practical this course was. Corinne is extremely generous in sharing her insights, suggestions and tips, and this was very important to me as a relatively novice translator. I always got the feeling I could ask any question, no matter what, and Corinne would provide a thoughtful and thorough answer. This course is a must for beginner translators.”

If you’re a beginning translator looking for the nuts and bolts of how to launch and run a successful freelance business, Getting Started as a Freelance Translator will get you there! You’ll create a translation-targeted resume and cover e-mail, a billable hours and rates sheet, and a marketing plan for your translation business. Most importantly, you’ll finish the course with increased confidence in your freelance business skills.

Format: This is a special, free session of this course. Everyone will have access to the weekly video lectures and question and answer sessions (recordings provided), and we’ll have a Slack group for discussion. You’ll receive a weekly homework assignment with sample answers, but you will not receive individual feedback on the assignments.

Here’s the link if you want to sign up, and we’ll go live on March 30.

Why You Should Never Offer a “Free Quote” On Your Website (Or Elsewhere)

This post was originally published on Madalena Sánchez Zampaulo’s blog. It is reposted with permission from the author.

Whether you’re a seasoned professional translator or a newbie who’s just getting your feet wet, your website should be the place where clients go to find out more about your services and to find out how they can work with you. Not only that, but it should make them want to work with you. There are a lot of ways to convince a client to reach out for an inquiry about your services. But one way that I recommend you never utilize on your website (or anywhere else for that matter) is by mentioning a “free quote”. Some people use mentions of free quotes as a button to click, or a tab at the top of the web page in the navigation bar, or on a form that clients can fill out and submit. Wait a minute. Doesn’t everyone do that these days? Well, not everyone. But a very large number of people do. Want to know a little secret? I did the same thing! Then why in the world am I suggesting you not do this?

Here are my top five reasons to never mention requests for a free quote on your website (or elsewhere).

1. When you offer a free quote, you are bringing attention to pricing. Front and center. You are inevitably going to attract price shoppers. Are they your ideal clients? Do you want to be discussing pricing over quality? I’m guessing you don’t. Then remove the “free quote” bit as a way to draw people in. You do not want to devalue anything that you do, so avoid the word “free” all together.

If you choose to remove mentions of free quotes from your website, I am willing to bet that you will start attracting fewer price shoppers and more serious clients. Give it a try! Remember, everything in business is an experiment.

2. You are stating the obvious. Of course the quotes you send clients are probably free. I say this because I don’t know of any translators who charge for to provide quotes to clients. So, they’re likely expected to be free anyway. When you change the verbiage on your site from offering a “free quote” to something like “contact us”, “contact me”, “send John an email”, “request a consultation” or something like that, you remove any thought you might have instilled with the word “free”. Price shoppers will be less likely to contact you, and you will be more likely to receive requests with serious inquiries.

3. By avoiding any mentions of free quotes, you allow site visitors to focus on what’s more important than the price: the value you bring to them and to their business or organization. When you focus on defining your value proposition for your ideal client and making that as clear as possible, people will want to work with you. The quote itself will be merely a formality.

4. You get to choose the direction the conversation goes. When you avoid discussing free quotes on your website, you also attract fewer of those “I need this yesterday!” clients. If your site gives off more of a “let’s have a conversation” vibe, those pesky clients who want something done for nothing, or who have an unreasonable timeline, will look elsewhere. Who wants to work with clients like that anyway?

If you plan to work with direct clients, you should be setting most of the parameters. When do you have an opening to work on a new project? How long will it take? What will it cost the client? You are not an order taker. So, have a real conversation with your client and talk pricing last, after you’ve had a chance to “wow” them.

5. By not leading people to ask for a price right off the bat, you allow yourself to customize your service sales. While you may charge the same price to all of your technical English to German translation clients, you have the opportunity to actually price your work based on the value you bring to the table. This means that you do not have to set prices from price sheets you have on file. Instead, you can factor in the value you bring to each project as part of the background information you need in order to provide the quote in the first place. The “value factor” should be considered just as much as other factors you consider when providing a quote (number of words or hours a project will take, technicality of the language used, delivery time, etc.). If this is a concept that interests you, then check out Blair Enns’ YouTube video on the differences between customized and productized services and how they impact your business approach, pricing and profit margins.

Now, remember that I told you that we found we were sending the wrong message by including the “free quote” verbiage on my business’ website? Well, in the process of pivoting that message, we also came up with some great ways to deal with price shoppers when they do contact us. I’ve turned those ways to deal into a list of tips.

Tips for dealing with price shoppers when you prefer to market your services based on value.

○ When a lead starts off the conversation asking about the cost, say, “Is price the only factor in your decision to hire a professional?” Then pause. Allow the person to respond, and if it seems that price is their deal breaker, you can choose to take them on as a client or direct them somewhere else accordingly.

○ If you direct them somewhere else, warn them that you cannot vouch for the quality of the service they will receive. Sometimes they will see that you were right and will come back to you.

○ Let them know that you’re not the only one promoting high quality over cheap translations. Here is a great article to share with those clients who are clearly making decisions based on price, written by my late dear friend and colleague, Stephanie Tramdack Cash: “The High Cost of Cheap Translation“.

○ Let them know that you already have paying clients who you work with at your current prices who see the value in the quality of your work. This shows them that others are willing to pay for your services and it lets them know you don’t depend on their job or project for your survival. You are a professional. Portray yourself as one. Don’t back down on your prices just because someone says you’re too expensive for their budget. That’s actually a good thing, as it tells you that this person or business is not your ideal client.

○ Lastly, explain to him or her the processes you have in place to produce a professional and valuable translation. Some clients price shop because they are simply unaware of what it takes to be a professional translator and what systems and workflows, training and education are needed to perform a professional job. Take a moment to educate these people and move on with your day.

While educating clients on hiring professionals for their translation and interpreting needs can be frustrating at times, there are ways to attract your ideal clients and avoid those who are less than ideal. Adjusting your messaging on your website, and any other marketing materials or profiles you have, is a great place to start.

Author bio

Madalena Sánchez Zampaulo is the owner of Accessible Translation Solutions (ATS), a boutique translation company based in Southern California. She is also a Spanish and Portuguese to English translator, specializing in medicine and life sciences. Madalena’s interest in online marketing and copywriting has led her to write and teach about the benefits of using informational content online to attract and retain clients. After seeing the advantages of intentional and strategic marketing in her own business, Madalena now teaches those same skills to other freelance language professionals. She blogs and teaches courses on topics related to marketing your freelance translation business by deliberately building and shaping your online presence. For more information, visit www.madalenazampaulo.com.

Translating for Pharma

What is a translation?

A translation is, essentially, a new document for a new audience, since it is written to reflect the meaning of the source document as faithfully as possible in a new language. This new language could express things in different ways, which will be evident if a professional translates the material back to the original language without seeing the original document (known as back translation).

Translation as teamwork

Translation is always a partnership between all the participants in the process. As the Technical Contact for the ASTM Standard for Translation published in 2014, Helen prepared this work order and uses it to outline clear parameters for all projects or those who request translations (requesters, in this document).

Preliminary questions
  1. Who is the audience? Spanish monolingual speakers, bilingual native speakers of the target language with limited proficiency in the original language, speakers fluent in both languages? Health care professionals, patients, distributors, or regulators? In what country will the translated text be used? Should country-specific terminology be used?
  2. How will the requester handle questions? How long should it take to get an answer? Is it likely the customer will know the answer, or will they have to find someone else in their organization to provide the information?
  3. Is complete delivery when the translation is finalized acceptable? Understand that document 3 on the same topic may shed light on what was not clear in document 1. Partial deliveries complicate communication between translators, editors, project managers, and the requester. They often slow the process down and undermine quality.
  4. What style guide will be used? Does the requester have a style guide, or would they like to receive the one the translation team used to guide their decisions?
  5. Does the requester have a terminology database or previous translations available for reference that should be used for consistency? If the requester has resources, the translator should work with them. Otherwise, it could be important to find out if there are important terminology preferences ahead of time.
  6. How involved does the requester want to be in the translation? Will the translation be evaluated by the requester? If so, having an ongoing conversation with that person through the project can be useful.
  7. Does the requester want a translation of the translated document back into English (a back translation)? Be sure to set realistic expectations. The back translation will always have different wording from the original text while reflecting the same concepts. This is a required step in some fields.
Suggested steps for translation success
  1. Be watchful for ambiguities in the source document. Any discrepancies and contradictions in the source document need to be flagged and brought to the requester’s attention for clarification. Otherwise, the translator may solve these discrepancies in ways that are inconsistent with the requester’s expectations.
  2. Be careful with the use of translation tools. Small differences between one phrase and a similar one can go unnoticed as we accept repetitions in our rush to meet a deadline, especially dealing with sections that do not appear to have technical content. Requesters will check the material that is easiest for them to check: numbers, addresses, names. Step 5 can help mitigate these issues.
  3. Document terminology research. Keep a checklist of terminology issues to watch out for and follow it. Be very careful with terms that might be false cognates or close cognates.
  4. If the document is ultimately intended for use by patients and doctors who speak Spanish, rather than for the regulators who will be approving it, the terms chosen should be terms with which monolingual Spanish speakers are comfortable and will identify. These might not be the same terms used in US government websites. Translators should be prepared to defend linguistic decisions with research and logic. Sometimes requesters ask questions to verify that translators are applying professional best practices.
  5. Be very careful with additions or omissions, even if they are minor clarifications. The review tab of Word has a Read Aloud feature. It can be used to read the translation while following along on the original document to check for accuracy. Anything that might require clarification for the requester can go in the style guide.
  6. At the end, do a search for the terminology issues flagged and recheck all of them. Delaying delivery a little is better than delivering a text with avoidable problems.
How to ask for clarification

“Where it says xxx, on page 1, as a translator I wonder whether you would like it to say yyy or zzz.”

“This text gives two names for the same illness, in the following contexts (list them). What would you like us to do in the translation to maintain consistency with the different names, since one appears to be scientific and the other appears to be colloquial? Here is one suggestion: ________________. The organization appears to have two addresses. Is this correct? Please confirm.”

Problems when there is no flexibility

Sometimes the translator and reviewer are asked to include a particular preferred term and the back translator is asked to make sure a particular English term is used to match that term in the back translation. In those cases, it is important to verify that the English and Spanish terms truly are accurate translations of each other.

There should be some flexibility in translation. The meaning should be there, but the words in the back translation should be expected to be somewhat different than the words in the original document, though they will convey the same message. Translating the English document into a foreign language so that the back translation yields an exactly identical result will produce a document that is rigid and potentially unreadable for the non-English speaking audience and could defeat the purpose of providing language access.

Translation is not about the words. It is about what the words are about.

A flowchart of the translation process
Step Translator Requester
Together, determine:

  • Audience
  • Style guide
  • Terminology resources
  • How to answer questions
  • Deadline for complete delivery
  • Participation of requester in project
  • Need for back translation
Initial decisions:

·         Terminology analysis

·         Decisions regarding tools to use

·         Ambiguities in the source document

·         How to develop a style guide

·         What goes on the checklist?

·         Always keep the intended audience of the translation in mind.

1 Translator delivers the bilingual text in two-column format in a Microsoft Word document.
2 Reviewer edits the translation with track changes on and makes comments. These comments and changes are recorded and approved by the translator.
3 Back translator translates translation back to source language.
4 Back translation comes back. The translator and reviewer verify that the translation approved by the reviewer matches the source text.
5 Specialists from the pharma legal team review the back translation and make comments regarding nuances they found that might be different from their source text. This could include mistakes, negligible linguistic differences that must be explained to the requester, or wording that needs to be translated in a specific way for legal reasons. It may be helpful to ask your requester to flag or categorize changes based on the severity and nature of the change. Does the requester consider it wrong or do they simply prefer that the word be written out rather than expressed in an acronym? Are they changing this for legal reasons, or because they don’t understand why it isn’t identical between the original and back translation?
6 Update style guide
7 The back translator, translator, and reviewer work together to make the requested changes and ensure they are executed in a unified manner across all translation documentation.
8 The new version is submitted to the requester for approval
9 The new version is submitted in two versions: a clean version and a two-column table comparing the back translation and the original text.
10 The requester agrees on the translation
11 The translator certifies the translation with the ATA seal. Both the translator and the reviewer certify the accuracy of the translated document. This should be done at the end, so the requester understands that it is unacceptable to change the document once it is certified. The certification is only valid for the version approved by the certifying translator.
Qualifications ATA certified translators. The ATA certification exam has a 12% pass rate in Spanish.

Subject matter expertise in medical and science topics.

The reader of the document should have verified language proficiency in the language of the document, to avoid the risk of making suggestions that could corrupt the integrity of the translation if implemented.

Review this document on language proficiency of bilingual employees for further information on language proficiency. There are language proficiency tests in reading available through www.languagetesting.com

Sample certification text

I, [translator name], ATA certified translator, certify that:

I performed the translation into Spanish of the document called [document name]

To the best of my knowledge, that translation is an accurate rendition of the original document written in English.

I am a competent translator and have been certified by the American Translators Association as a Spanish to English in [month] of [year] and as an English to Spanish translator in [month] of [year].

Date (Signature) [seals]

Sample analysis of terminology for gradient of severity of adverse drug reactions
Mild or moderate adverse drug reactions do not necessarily mean that people must stop taking a drug, especially if no suitable alternative is available. However, doctors are likely to reevaluate the dose, frequency of use (number of doses a day), and timing of doses (for example, before or after meals; in the morning or at bedtime). Other drugs may be used to control the adverse drug reaction (for example, a stool softener to relieve constipation). Leve

No es necesario ningún tratamiento.

Moderate adverse reactions include:

·         Rashes (especially if they are extensive and persistent)

·         Visual disturbances (especially in people who wear corrective lenses)

·         Muscle tremor

·         Difficulty with urination (a common effect of many drugs in older men)

·         Any perceptible change in mood or mental function

·         Certain changes in blood components, such as a temporary, reversible decrease in the white blood cell count or in blood levels of some substances, such as glucose

Also, reactions that are usually described as mild are considered moderate if the person experiencing them considers them distinctly annoying, distressing, or intolerable

Moderado

Es precisa una modificación del tratamiento (p. ej., modificación de la dosis, adición de otro fármaco), pero la interrupción de la administración del fármaco no es imprescindible; puede ser necesario prolongar la internación o aplicar un tratamiento específico.

Severe adverse drug reactions

Severe reactions include those that may be life threatening (such as liver failure, abnormal heart rhythms, certain types of allergic reactions), that result in persistent or significant disability or hospitalization, and that cause a birth defect. Severe reactions are relatively rare. Doctors use every possible means to control a severe adverse drug reaction.

Grave

La reacción adversa a fármacos pone en peligro la vida del paciente y exige interrumpir la administración del fármaco e aplicar un tratamiento específico.

Lethal adverse drug reactions

 

Lethal reactions are those in which a drug reaction directly or indirectly caused death. These reactions are typically severe reactions that were not detected in time or did not respond to treatment

Mortal

Una reacción adversa a fármacos puede contribuir directa o indirectamente a la muerte del paciente.

Source for this table: English and Spanish Merck Manuals for Home Health. Note this opening sentence from the English article:

There is no universal scale for describing or measuring the severity of an adverse drug reaction. Assessment is largely subjective.

The column on the right was taken from the professional version of the Spanish Merck manual.

In practice, a requester’s document may not match this list. Therefore, translators must do a terminology analysis of the complete list of reactions listed in the document to put the reactions on the gradient list and develop an appropriate terminology list for that document, to avoid confusion.

Resources for translation

Resources not to use

  • US Government websites. The US Government has a policy of contracting the lowest cost technically acceptable bidder, which yields unreliable translation results.
  • Wikipedia is a tertiary source, not a primary source. Researchers are not allowed to quote it as a primary source in research papers. It is a great place to get a basic idea and then keep researching.
  • Linguee. This is basically a quick check of how something has been translated in various contexts. It can yield unreliable results.

Resources to use

  • The Merck Manual, which is available online in many languages in two versions: for professionals and for patients. These versions are not direct translations of each other in the different languages. They are carefully written and edited in each language to be used as a direct resource for people in those language cultures. These resources have been discussed with members of the American Medical Writers Association in charge of writing medical documents in Spanish, and one (an Argentine MD who has been a translator and is now in charge of the medical documentation for an organization like this pharma group) says there is no better resource than the Merck.
  • Word Magic, an app available for the iPhone and iPad. Its translations do not just come, as many do, as a bilingual glossary, but also with synonyms, sentences, and other useful information for context. The medical, business, legal, slang, and general versions are constantly updated.
  • The Jablonsky dictionary of acronyms and abbreviations.
  • Vox Médico.
  • Other specialized resources written for medical professionals.
  • Diario Médico, a newsletter for doctors from Spain.

Style guides

Regarding style guides, although the Real Academia Española is highly regarded, Deusto has published a style guide that is an adaptation of the Chicago Manual of Style in Spanish: Manual de estilo Chicago Deusto, edición adaptada al español. This is used by many translators who work in technical fields and is consistent with the 2010 updates of the Real Academia Española.

This is a highly regarded resource, which we use as a primary resource in most translations. It provides helpful references for the editor at all stages of the editing process in one volume, which makes it particularly useful.

One reason for using the Deusto is that there are several RAE publications, making it difficult to follow the thread of what guidelines have been followed in each of the many publications that RAE has published on the same topic in the last few years. However, El buen uso del español is one of the most practical ones and is available on Kindle. On the other hand, it often seems to contradict some of the guidelines in the larger references, such as the Nueva Gramática and the Ortografía. As translators, we make decisions regarding style based on the document and the needs of the requester. Editors develop style guides for each setting, and so do we.

Image source: Pixabay

Author bios

by Helen Eby and Carlie Sitzman

Carlie Sitzman graduated from Weber State University with a BA in German and an AAS in Technical Drafting in 2009, at which time it was clear that best way to make her passion for language and fascination with technology into a career was to become a translator. In 2011 she moved to Germany where she simultaneously freelanced and earned her MA in Intercultural German Studies from the Universität Bayreuth. She now translates from offices in Wilmington, Delaware and will be celebrating her ten-year anniversary in the industry this year. www.sitzmanaetranslations.com